The Significance of Lymphovascular Invasion of the Spermatic Cord in the Absence of Cord Soft Tissue Invasion.

Academic Article


  • CONTEXT: - Testicular germ cell tumors with lymphovascular invasion (LVI) are staged pT2, and those with spermatic cord involvement are staged pT3. OBJECTIVE: - To study the clinical significance of LVI within the spermatic cord without direct involvement of the cord soft tissues. DESIGN: - A retrospective, multi-institutional review was performed on testicular GCTs with spermatic cord LVI in the absence of cord soft tissue invasion. RESULTS: - Forty-four germ cell tumors had LVI in the spermatic cord without soft tissue invasion; 37 of 44 patients (84%) had nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT), and 7 (16%) had pure seminomas. Patients with NSGCTs and spermatic cord LVI had worse clinical outcomes compared with patients with pure seminoma and spermatic cord LVI (P = .008). We then compared patients with NSGCTs and spermatic cord LVI (n = 37) to patients with NSGCTs and LVI limited to the testis (n = 32). A significantly greater percentage of patients with LVI in the spermatic cord presented with advanced clinical stage (76% versus 50%; P = .01). There was no statistically significant difference in disease recurrence/progression or death between patients with spermatic cord LVI and patients with LVI limited to the testis (P = .40; P = .50). There was no significant difference in the presence of embryonal dominant histology (P = .30) or rete testis invasion (P = .50) between the 2 groups. More hilar soft tissue invasion was seen in patients with LVI present in the spermatic cord (P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: - In patients with NSGCTs, LVI in the spermatic cord, without soft tissue invasion, is associated with worse clinical stage at presentation compared with patients with LVI confined to the testis.
  • Keywords

  • Adolescent, Adult, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Invasiveness, Neoplasm Staging, Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal, Seminoma, Spermatic Cord, Testicular Neoplasms, Testis, Young Adult
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • McCleskey BC; Epstein JI; Albany C; Hashemi-Sadraei N; Idrees MT; Jorns JM; Lu DY; Matoso A; Rais-Bahrami S; Schwartz LE
  • Start Page

  • 824
  • End Page

  • 829
  • Volume

  • 141
  • Issue

  • 6