PURPOSE: To explore a clinically observed association between central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Sixty-nine consecutive patients diagnosed with CSC were compared with a control group of 55 non-CSC patients. METHODS: The records of 69 patients with CSC were retrospectively reviewed and compared with the records of 55 controls. All patients and controls were examined in a referral setting. RESULTS: Patients with CSC were significantly more likely to have GERD compared with controls (odds ratio 6.05; 95% confidence interval 2.14-17.11; P =.0003). Central serous chorioretinopathy patients were also more likely than controls to have used oral corticosteroid medications (odds ratio 16.30; 95% confidence interval 2.09-127.33; P =.0006) and antacid/antireflux medications (odds ratio 15.00; 95% confidence interval 1.91-117.58; P =.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies an association between CSC and GERD. There are biochemical factors common to both diseases that support this association, giving further insight into the pathogenesis of CSC.