High animal protein intake is a risk factor for calcium oxalate stone disease. The effect of dietary protein on the urinary excretion of calcium, acid and citrate is well established. However, its effect on oxalate excretion is unclear, due in part to an inadequate control of dietary oxalate intake in previous studies. This relationship warrants clarification due to the proposed important role of the metabolism of amino acids in endogenous oxalate synthesis. In this study, 11 normal subjects consumed controlled oxalate diets containing 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight/day. The analysis of 24 h urine collections confirmed that as protein intake increased, urinary calcium and glycolate increased and urinary pH and citrate decreased. The increased glycolate excretion was due in part to an increased hydroxyproline, but not glycolate consumption. Total daily urinary oxalate excretion did not change. When indexed to creatinine there was a small but significant decrease in oxalate excretion. This is most likely due to hyperfiltration. These results indicate that as dietary protein intake increases, the catabolism of diet-derived amino acids is not associated with an increased endogenous oxalate synthesis in normal subjects. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.