Calcium oxalate kidney stones are a common condition affecting many people in the United States. The concentration of oxalate in urine is a major risk factor for stone formation. There is evidence that glyoxal metabolism may be an important contributor to urinary oxalate excretion. Endogenous sources of glyoxal include the catabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Here, we review all the known sources of glyoxal as well as its relationship to oxalate synthesis and crystal formation. © Copyright 2012 Jessica N. Lange et al.