PURPOSE: To evaluate associations between baseline structural and functional ocular characteristics and the risk of developing posttraumatic glaucoma after penetrating ocular injury. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Data from the United States Eye Injury Registry (USEIR) were obtained from a total of 3,627 patients who experienced penetrating ocular injury. The risk of posttraumatic glaucoma and associated structural and functional ocular risk factors was estimated. RESULTS: The risk of developing posttraumatic glaucoma was 2.67%. The development of glaucoma was independently associated with several baseline characteristics including advancing age (relative risk 1.02/yr 95% confidence interval [1.00, 1.03]), lens injury (1.56 [1.03, 2.35]), poor baseline visual acuity (2.59 [1.62, 4.14]), and inflammation (3.02 [1.52, 6.02]). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an estimate for the risk of developing glaucoma after penetrating ocular injury in a large cohort of patients and determined several factors that are significantly associated with the development of post-traumatic glaucoma, including advancing age, lens injury, poor visual acuity, and intraocular inflammation.