To evaluate associations between baseline structural and functional ocular characteristics and the risk of developing posttraumatic glaucoma after penetrating ocular injury. Prospective cohort study Data from the United States Eye Injury Registry (USEIR) were obtained from a total of 3,627 patients who experienced penetrating ocular injury. The risk of posttraumatic glaucoma and associated structural and functional ocular risk factors was estimated. The risk of developing posttraumatic glaucoma was 2.67%. The development of glaucoma was independently associated with several baseline characteristics including advancing age (relative risk 1.02/yr 95% confidence interval [1.00, 1.03]), lens injury (1.56 [1.03, 2.35]), poor baseline visual acuity (2.59 [1.62, 4.14]), and inflammation (3.02 [1.52, 6.02]). This study provides an estimate for the risk of developing glaucoma after penetrating ocular injury in a large cohort of patients and determined several factors that are significantly associated with the development of post-traumatic glaucoma, including advancing age, lens injury, poor visual acuity, and intraocular inflammation. © 2005 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.