The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pelvic-floor musculature exercises in the treatment of women with anatomical urinary stress incontinence. Fourteen female subjects, ranging in age from 33 to 67 years, participated in a four-week pelvic-floor musculature exercise program. Subjects underwent a pretraining urodynamic evaluation and were reexamined after four weeks of exercise training. Paired t tests of subjects' pretraining and posttraining values of bladder capacity, functional urethral length, and static urethral pressure profile showed no significant differences. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the covariates of weight, motivation, and age did not significantly influence subjects' bladder capacity, functional urethral length, or static urethral pressure profile. Nine of the 14 subjects had a negative result on the posttraining urinary stress test (R = 0, p < .01). The urinary stress test result was the only variable to change significantly from pretraining to posttraining measurements. All subjects reported posttraining improvement in control of urinary incontinence. A short-term exercise program for pelvic-floor musculature produced positive changes in subjects with anatomical urinary stress incontinence.