Objective: The objective of this study was to assess in prospective data whether bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with gonococcal/chlamydial cervicitis. Study: A total of 1179 women at high risk for sexually transmitted infections was followed for a median of 3 years. Every 6 to 12 months, vaginal swabs were obtained for Gram stain, culture of microflora, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. A Gram stain score of 7 to 10 based on the Nugent criteria categorized BV. Results: Baseline BV was associated with concurrent gonococcal/chlamydial infection (adjusted odds ratio, 2.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-4.42). However, the association between BV and subsequent, incident gonococcal/chlamydial genital infection was not significant (adjusted relative risk [RR], 1.52; 95% CI, 0.74-3.13). Dense growth of pigmented, anaerobic Gram-negative rods (adjusted RR, 1.93; 95% CI, 0.97-3.83) appeared to elevate the risk for newly acquired gonococcal/chlamydial genital infection. Conclusions: BV was common among a predominantly black group of women with concurrent gonococcal/chlamydial infection but did not elevate the risk for incident infection. Copyright © 2005, American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association All rights reserved.