OBJECTIVE: To compare sexual functioning and health-related quality-of-life outcomes of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and supracervical hysterectomy (SCH) among women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomata or abnormal uterine bleeding refractory to hormonal management. METHODS: We randomly assigned 135 women scheduled to undergo abdominal hysterectomy in 4 U.S. clinical centers to either a total or supracervical procedure. The primary outcome was sexual functioning at 2 years, as assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study Sexual Problems Scale. Secondary outcomes included specific aspects of sexual functioning and health-related quality-of-life at 6 months and 2 years. RESULTS: Sexual problems improved dramatically in both randomized groups during the first 6 months and plateaued by 1 year. Health-related quality-of-life scores also improved in both groups. At 2 years, both groups reported few problems with sexual functioning (mean score on the Sexual Problems Scale for SCH group 82, TAH group 80, on a 0-to-100 scale with 100 indicating an absence of problems; difference = +2,95% confidence interval -8 to +11), and there were no significant differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Supracervical and total abdominal hysterectomy result in similar sexual functioning and health-related quality of life during 2 years of follow-up. This information can help guide physicians as they discuss surgical options with their patients. © 2005 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.