Objective: This study was undertaken to assess whether short-term markers, often used to measure clinical cure after treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease, predict sequelae of lack of pregnancy, recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease, and chronic pelvic pain. Study Design: Women with mild-to-moderate pelvic inflammatory disease were assessed after treatment initiation at 5 days for tenderness (n = 713) and at 30 days for tenderness, cervical infections and endometritis (n = 298). Pregnancy, recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease, and chronic pelvic pain were evaluated after 84 months, on average. Results: Pelvic tenderness at 5 and at 30 days significantly elevated the risk for developing chronic pelvic pain; tenderness at 30 days was also significantly associated with recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease. However, pelvic tenderness at 5 and at 30 days was only modestly clinically predictive of chronic pelvic pain or recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease (positive predictive values 22.1-66.9%). No short-term marker significantly influenced the likelihood of achieving a pregnancy. Conclusion: Tenderness at 5 or 30 days did not accurately predict the occurrence of pelvic inflammatory disease-related reproductive morbidities. © 2008 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.