Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) have been shown to play important roles in regulating a number of signal transduction pathways that couple to vesicle trafficking reactions, phosphoinositide-driven receptor-mediated signaling cascades, and development. While yeast and metazoan PITPs have been analyzed in some detail, plant PITPs remain entirely uncharacterized. We report the identification and characterization of two soybean proteins, Ssh1p and Ssh2p, whose structural genes were recovered on the basis of their abilities to rescue the viability of PITP-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. We demonstrate that, while both Ssh1p and Ssh2p share ~ 25% primary sequence identity with yeast PITP, these proteins exhibit biochemical properties that diverge from those of the known PITPs. Ssh1p and Ssh2p represent high-affinity phosphoinositide binding proteins that are distinguished from each other both on the basis of their phospholipid binding specificities and by their substantially non-overlapping patterns of expression in the soybean plant. Finally, we show that Ssh1p is phosphorylated in response to various environmental stress conditions, including hyperosmotic stress. We suggest that Ssh1p may function as one component of a stress response pathway that serves to protect the adult plant from osmotic insult.