Evaluation of a Web-Based Training in Smoking Cessation Counseling Targeting U.S. Eye-Care Professionals.

Academic Article


  • BACKGROUND: Smoking causes blindness-related diseases. Eye-care providers are uniquely positioned to help their patients quit smoking. AIMS: Using a pre-/postevaluation design, this study evaluated a web-based training in smoking cessation counseling targeting eye-care providers. METHOD: The training was developed based on the 3A1R protocol: "Ask about smoking, Advise to quit, Assess willingness to quit, and Refer to tobacco quitlines," and made available in the form of a web-based video presentation. Providers ( n = 654) at four academic centers were invited to participate. Participants completed pretraining, posttraining, and 3-month follow-up surveys. Main outcomes were self-reported improvement in their motivation, confidence, and counseling practices at 3-month follow-up. Generalized linear mixed models for two time-points (pretraining and 3-month) were conducted for these outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 113 providers (54.0% males) participated in the study (17.7% response rate). At the 3-month evaluation, 9.8% of participants reported improvement in their motivation. With respect to the 3A1R, 8% reported improvement in their confidence for Ask, 15.5% for Advise, 28.6% for Assess, and 37.8% for Refer. Similarly, 25.5% reported improvement in their practices for Ask, 25.5% for Advise, 37.2% for Assess, and 39.4% for Refer to tobacco quitlines ( p < .001 for all except for Refer confidence p = .05). DISCUSSION: Although participation rate was low, the program effectively improved providers' smoking cessation counseling practices. CONCLUSIONS: Including training in smoking cessation counseling in ophthalmology curriculums, and integrating the 3A1R protocol into the electronic medical records systems in eye-care settings, might promote smoking cessation practices in these settings.
  • Published In


  • eye-care providers, smoking and blindness, smoking cessation counseling, system-level change, tobacco quitlines, training program evaluation
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Asfar T; Lee DJ; Lam BL; Murchison AP; Mayro EL; Owsley C; McGwin G; Gower EW; Friedman DS; Saaddine J
  • Start Page

  • 181
  • End Page

  • 189
  • Volume

  • 45
  • Issue

  • 2