© 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Objective: To describe the rates and causes for rehospitalization over 10 years after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to characterize longitudinal trajectories of the probability of rehospitalization using generalized linear mixed models and individual growth curve models conditioned on factors that help explain individual variability in rehospitalization risk over time. Design: Secondary analysis of data from a multicenter longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Acute inpatient rehabilitation facilities and community follow-up. Participants: Individuals 16 years and older with a primary diagnosis of TBI. Main Outcome Measures: Rehospitalization (and reason for rehospitalization) as reported by participants or proxy during follow-up telephone interviews at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years postinjury. Results: The greatest number of rehospitalizations occurred in the first year postinjury (27.8% of the sample), and the rates of rehospitalization remained largely stable (22.1%-23.4%) at 2, 5, and 10 years. Reasons for rehospitalization varied over time: Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery rehospitalizations were most common in year 1, whereas general health maintenance was most common by year 2 with rates increasing at each follow-up. Longitudinal models indicate that multiple demographic and injury-related factors are associated with the probability of rehospitalization over time. Conclusions: These findings can inform the content and timing of interventions to improve health and longevity after TBI.