© 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved. Background/Objectives:Childbearing is associated with a disproportionate accumulation of visceral fat and an increased risk of metabolic disease. However, it is unknown whether the visceral fat accretion associated with pregnancy modifies a woman's risk for metabolic disease. The purpose of this study was to test whether the association between abdominal fat and insulin sensitivity differs by parity status in healthy overweight women.Subjects/Methods:Intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) via CT, body composition by DXA, insulin sensitivity via intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal model (S I), HOMA-IR, and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2max) were assessed in 212 non-diabetic, premenopausal, overweight non-Hispanic white and African-American women.Results:Nulliparous women (n=98) were younger, had less IAAT and higher VO 2max, but similar S I, HOMA-IR and leg fat, compared to parous (n=114). In nulliparous women, IAAT was negatively associated with S I, controlling for age, race and body fat mass (r=0.40, P<0.001), but this relationship was attenuated in parous women (r=0.15, P=0.16). In multiple linear regression analysis, leg fat and IAAT were significant predictors of S I in nulliparous, but not parous women.Conclusions:Results suggest that greater IAAT in parous women does not lead to greater insulin resistance; rather, transient insulin resistance during pregnancy may encourage intra-abdominal fat accumulation that is metabolically benign. This underscores the need to consider parity when assessing cardiometabolic risk.