Mycoplasma virus P1 is one of only four viruses isolated from the genus Mycoplasma. The host for P1, Mycoplasma pulmonis, possesses complex, phase-variable restriction and modification enzymes and the Vsa family of phase-variable surface proteins. The ability of P1 virus to infect host cells is influenced by these phase-variable systems, rendering P1 a valuable tool for assessing host properties. The double-stranded P1 DNA genome was sequenced (11,660 bp) and 11 ORFs were identified. The predicted P1 DNA polymerase is similar to that of phages that are known to have terminal protein (TP) attached to the 5′ end of their genome, consistent with previous studies indicating that P1 DNA has covalently attached TP. Most of the other predicted P1 proteins have little sequence similarity to known proteins, and P1 virus is unrelated to the other mycoplasma virus, MAVI, for which the genome sequence is known. One of the predicted P1 proteins, the ORF 8 gene product, contains a repetitive collagen-like motif characteristic of some bacteriophage tail fiber proteins and is a candidate for interacting with the Vsa proteins. © 2001 Academic Press.