Bias, confounding, and effect modification



  • Bias, jaconfounding, and random variation/chance are the reasons for a non-causal association between an exposure and outcome. This chapter will define and discuss these concepts so that they may be appropriately considered whenever one is interpreting the data from a study. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    International Standard Book Number (isbn) 13

  • 9781402084850
  • Start Page

  • 295
  • End Page

  • 302