In the past several years, the collective understanding of cervicitis has extended beyond the recognition of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as the prime etiologic suspects. Trichomonas vaginalis and herpes simplex virus cause cervicitis, and both Mycoplasma genitalium and bacterial vaginosis have emerged as new candidate etiologic agents or conditions. However, major gaps in our knowledge of this common condition remain. Putative etiologic agents have not been identified in many women with cervicitis. Moreover, cervicitis occurs in a relatively small proportion of women with chlamydia or gonorrhea. Finally, scant research has addressed the clinical response of nonchlamydial and nongonococcal cervicitis to antibiotic therapy, and there are no data on the benefit of sex partner treatment for such women. New research into the etiology, immunology, and natural history of this common condition is needed, especially in view of the well-established links between cervicitis and an increased risk of upper genital tract infection and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 acquisition. © 2007 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.