The mucosal environment may impact the risk for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition. Immune mediators were measured in vaginal fluid collected from HPTN 035 participants who acquired HIV-1 and from those who remained HIV-1 negative (controls). Mediator concentrations were similar in samples obtained before as compared to after HIV-1 acquisition in the 8 seroconverters. Compared with controls, seroconverters were more likely to have detectable levels of HD-2 (odds ratio [OR], 2.39; P =. 005) and greater Escherichia coli bactericidal activity (OR, 1.22; P =. 01) prior to seroconversion. E. coli bactericidal activity remained significant in a multivariable analysis (P =. 02) and may be a biomarker for HIV-1 acquisition. © 2012 The Author.