Available data support that women who have sex with women (WSW) are at risk for a variety of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and vaginitis. Risk of STI transmission in this group depends on the specific STI under consideration and the sexual practices involved. Data demonstrates that WSW receive less standard gynecologic screening than their heterosexual counterparts. This may be due, in part, to provider and patient assessment of risk. Based on available evidence, there is a need to increase provider education on the sexual health of WSW. Moreover, enhancement of STI screening guidelines that specifically mention WSW, particularly for cervical cancer and infections caused by C. trachomatis, are essential. © Singh and Marrazzo; Licensee Bentham Open.