We performed temporal lobectomy in 23 young patients with intractable complex partial seizures (CPS) at an average age of 14.5 years. At a mean follow-up interval of 4.8 years, we reevaluated the patients to assess the surgical outcome; 74% were seizure-free. Cognitive testing showed slight improvement in Full-scale I.Q. scores and in some subtest scores. Wechsler Memory Scales had not changed significantly from the preoperative scores. Both pre- and postoperative Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories 168 (MMPIs) were obtained in nine patients; and only postoperative MMPIs were obtained in 18. Pre- and postoperative social function, reported by the patients in a structured interview with a clinical psychologist (H.S.S.), was scored by a rating scale. All patients reported postoperative improvement in social function, although of variable degree. Patients were divided into a well-adjusted and a poorly adjusted group based on their postoperative social function. As compared with the well-adjusted group, the poorly adjusted group reported more preoperative social problems, had lower preoperative and postoperative I.Q. scores, had poorer postoperative seizure control, and had higher postoperative MMPI scores.