© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Dorsal rhizotomy is a neurosurgical procedure used for treatment of spasticity. It is most effective for children with cerebral palsy who are able to ambulate, but who have spasticity that impairs ambulation. Selective dorsal rhizotomy is the most widely practiced form of rhizotomy, and involves stimulation of dorsal nerve roots and monitoring a response from target muscles. The response of a root to stimulation is used to guide the sectioning of nerve roots that are more likely to be giving rise to pathologic spasticity. However, there is controversy about the effectiveness of nerve root stimulation in identifying pathologic nerve roots. Dorsal rhizotomy has been shown to significantly decrease spasticity in randomized controlled trials compared to physical therapy alone, but has not been shown to be clearly superior in long-term (>. 10 years) follow-up. Potential complications include neurogenic bladder and long-term development of spinal deformity.