© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009. All rights reserved. Traditional medicines and dietary supplements continue to be used in the search for bioactive agents that maintain health and prevent disease. Individual compounds are being isolated and tested, as is the synergism offered by the variety of compounds in botanicals and supplements. Establishing the composition and quality control of botanicals and supplements is essential in order to carry out clinical trails. Interactions between botanicals and conventinal therapeutics must also be carefully considered. Increasing numbers of investigators are applying-Omic technologies to pursue the mechanisms of action of botanicals.