Cytokines in the host response to mycotic agents

Academic Article


  • In summary, different approaches have been taken to understand cytokine responses to different fungal infections. Singer-Vermes and co-investigators indirectly examined cytokine responses to paracoccidioidomycosis by studying the types of cellular and humoral immune responses that were induced in resistant and susceptible mouse strains. Their results implicated Th1 cell responses in the resistant mouse strain and Th2 cell responses in the mouse strain susceptible to paracoccidioidomycosis. By measuring cytokine production and through cytokine depletion experiments, Wu-Hsieh showed that besides IFNγ TNFα was important in host defences against the intracellular pathogen, H. capsulatum. Both cytokines play important roles in the regulation of other cytokines. In histoplasmosis, the dynamics of the complex interactions amongst cytokines govern the efficiency of host clearance of the fungus from tissues. Ferrante and collaborators, examining TNFα and TNFα receptors on neutrophils presented data showing that TNFα plays an important role in the activation of neutrophils for anti-Candida activity. Through the detection of cytokine mRNAs with RT-PCR, Moser and co-workers found that cytokine mRNAs of macrophage origin were produced preferentially in the lungs of mice infected with Histoplasma or Blastomyces. A great challenge still lies ahead of us. It is well understood that the interactions of cytokines are extremely complex at the levels of the induction and expression of the immune responses as well as on effects on natural cellular defences. Work accomplished thus far has laid the ground work for future studies in the effort to dissect host cytokine responses and to understand the roles of cytokines in protection against fungal infections. © 1994 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • Medical Mycology  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Murphy JW; Wu-Hsieh BA; Singer-Vermes LM; Ferrante A; Moser S; Russo M; Vaz CAC; Burger E; Calich VLG; Kowanko IC
  • Start Page

  • 203
  • End Page

  • 210
  • Volume

  • 32
  • Issue

  • S1