The superficial peroneal nerve subserves sensation on the entire surface of the dorsum of the foot, except in small areas. All previously reported techniques for evaluating nerve conduction along this nerve tested a proximal portion of the nerve. We report a new method for evaluating sensory nerve conduction of the four branches of the distal superficial peroneal nerve. Two branches to the second and third toes of the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve and two branches to the fourth and fifth toes of the intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve were studied orthodromically and antidromically in 37 feet of 21 normal volunteers using surface stimulating and recording electrodes and with a distance of 10 cm between the stimulating and recording electrodes. Maximum nerve conduction velocities (NCV) ranged from 41.8 to 46.9 m/s, and mean response amplitude ranged from 6.5 to 7.6 microV with the orthodromic technique. Values for NCV were almost identical when elicited by antidromic and orthodromic techniques, but response amplitudes were higher with the antidromic technique. Mean amplitudes of the distal superficial peroneal nerve were about 50% of the proximal superficial peroneal, and the conduction velocity in the distal superficial peroneal was slower than that in the proximal superficial peroneal nerve, by 8-14 m/s. In seven cases, distal superficial peroneal neuropathy was confirmed with this technique: two with proper digital neuropathy, two with medial dorsal cutaneous neuropathy, and three with intermediate dorsal cutaneous neuropathy.