As part of an ongoing program to develop novel antitumor agents over the years, we have synthesized and evaluated a number of 4'-C-substituted nucleosides. A few years ago, we reported the first synthesis of 4'-C-hydroxymethyl-2'-fluoro arabino nucleosides, which did not exhibit any cytotoxicity. In our exploration of related compounds, we synthesized and evaluated the 4'-C-methyl-2'-fluoro arabino nucleosides in both the purine and pyrimidine series. In the pyrimidine series, 1-(4-C-methyl-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl) cytosine (13) was found to be highly cytotoxic and had significant antitumor activity in mice implanted with human tumor xenografts. The synthesis and anticancer activity of this series of nucleosides are reported.