A murine P388 leukemia line fully resistant to thiarabine was obtained after five courses of intraperitoneal treatment (daily for nine consecutive days). The subline was sensitive as was the parental P388/0 line to 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, melphalan, BCNU, mitomycin C, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, etoposide, irinotecan, vincristine, and paclitaxel, but was cross resistant (at least marginally) to three antimetabolites: palmO-ara-C, fludarabine phosphate, and methotrexate. The deoxycytidine kinase activity in the subline was comparable to that for P388/0, whereas the dCMP deaminase activity was 43% of that for P388/0. No deoxycytidine deaminase activity was detected in either of the leukemias. There appeared to be little, if any, difference in the metabolism of deoxycytidine, cytidine, or thiarabine in the two leukemias.