There is limited data pertaining to the risk of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) after living kidney donation. The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services databases were used to identify living kidney donors (LKDs) who subsequently developed ESRD and to calculate LKD ESRD rates. We found 126 cases of ESRD among 56 458 LKDs (0.22%) who donated during October 1, 1987-March 31, 2003. The overall LKD ESRD rate was 0.134 per 1000 years at risk, with an average duration of follow-up of 9.8 years. ESRD rates for LKDs overall and for Black, White, male and female donors compared favorably to the ESRD incidence in the general population. The LKD ESRD rate was nearly five times higher for Blacks than for Whites and two times higher for males than females. However, these ethnic and gender-related differences were similar to those previously reported for ESRD in the general population. Our findings do not show an increase in the risk of ESRD for LKDs and support the current practice of living kidney donation. Further research is needed to determine if improved donor screening or follow-up will reduce the risk of postdonation ESRD.