One of the greatest obstacles to the implementation of regional or national kidney paired donation programs (KPD) is the need for the donor to travel to their matched recipient's hospital. While transport of the kidney is an attractive alternative, there is concern that prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) would diminish the benefits of live donor transplantation (LDTx). To examine the impact of increased CIT in LDTx, 1-year serum creatinine (SCr), delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejection (AR) and allograft survival (AS) were analyzed in 38 467 patients by 2 h CIT groups (0-2, 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 h) using data from the United Network for Organ Sharing/Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (UNOS/OPTN). Adjusted probabilities of DGF and AR were estimated in multivariate logistic regression models and AS was examined in multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Although some increase in DGF was observed between the 0-2 h (4.7%) and 4-6 h (8.3%) groups, prolonged CIT did not result in inferior SCr, increased AR or compromised AS in any group with >2 h CIT compared with the 0-2 h group. Comparable long-term outcomes for these grafts suggests that transport of live donor organs may be a feasible alternative to donor travel in KPD regions where CIT can be limited to 8 h. © 2006 The Authors.