In the United States, ABO-incompatible liver transplantation (ILT) is limited to emergent situations when ABO-compatible liver transplantation (CLT) is unavailable. We analyzed the United Network for Organ Sharing database of ILT performed from 1990-2006 to assess ILT outcomes for infant (0-1 years; N = 156), pediatric (2-17 years; N = 170), and adult (> 17 years; N = 667) patients. Since 2000, the number of ILT has decreased annually, and there has been decreased use of blood type B donors and increased use of blood type A donors. Furthermore, ILT graft survival has improved for all age groups in recent years, beyond the improved graft survival attributable to era effect based on comparison to respective age group CLT. On matched control analysis, graft survival was significantly worse for adult ILT as compared to adult CLT. However, infant and pediatric ILTs did not have worse graft survival versus age-matched CLT. Adjusted analyses identified age-specific characteristics impacting ILT graft loss. For infants, transplant after 2000 and donor age < 9 years were associated with reduced risk of ILT graft loss. For pediatric patients, female recipient sex and donor age > 50 years were associated with increased risk of ILT graft loss. For adults, life support, repeat transplant, split grafts, and hepatocellular carcinoma were associated with increased risk of ILT graft loss. The current study identifies important trends in ILT in the United States in the modern immunosuppression era, as well as specific recipient, donor, and graft characteristics impacting ILT graft survival that could be utilized to guide ILT organ allocation in exigent circumstances. © 2009 AASLD.