Pancreatic resection can alleviate pain in properly selected patients with severe chronic pancreatitis (CP), although the apancreatic state causes "brittle" diabetes. Islet auto-transplantation (IAT) after resection can decrease diabetes-related morbidity. Twenty-six consecutive patients with CP who underwent 27 pancreatic resections with IAT from April 2005 to December 2007 were evaluated in this retrospective case control study. Data were collected by chart and operative note reviews and query of hospital databases. Subgroup analysis was performed on 21 cases of total pancreatectomy and six cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Mean age was 43.8 years and 46.2 per cent of patients were female. The most common etiology of CP was alcoholism (34.6%), followed by idiopathic causes (30.8%) and pancreatic divisum (23.1%). There was no mortality and the complication rate was 56 per cent. Islet equivalents infused and islet equivalents/gram of pancreas were 82,094 and 2,739 respectively. Mean discharge insulin dose was 10.7 units/day. Mean follow-up was 6.5 months. At 6 months, 80 per cent of patients reporting had decreased or eliminated their use of narcotic medication and all total pancreatectomy patients required insulin (mean 23 units/day). In appropriately selected patients, pancreatic resection with IAT is safe and effective for the treatment of intractable pain associated with CP.