The stage of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) determines that the treatment strategy and proper staging lead to improved survival. Integrated positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (CT) scan provides more accurate staging and better targets for biopsy than traditional methods such as CT scans of the chest and upper abdomen, bone scans, and magnetic resonance imaging scans. Integrated positron emission tomography/CT is the best initial test for an indeterminate pulmonary nodule that is 8 mm or greater; for the noninvasive staging of patients with NSCLC, it is the only test that produces a quantitative assessment of an NSCLC's virulence or biologic aggressiveness in a particular patient and is the best tool for restaging patients after radiation and and/or chemotherapy. Finally, its use as a tool for postoperative surveillance is under study. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.