Routine neonatal care includes frequent position changes. Recent research has concluded that positions other than supine may result in beneficial physiologic responses. Specifically, several studies suggest that neonates may ventilate more effectively in a prone rather than in a supine position. This study tested the hypothesis that transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (TcPCO2) would be lower in the prone than in the supine position in neonates with respiratory distress. Fourteen ventilated infants were studied. TcPCO2 was measured and recorded in prone, supine, and right-side-lying positions for each subject. There were no statistically significant differences in mean TcPCO2 values between the three positions (F = .45; df 2,39; P = .64). The relationship between TcPCO2 and PaCO2 values was stable (r = .88) during the studies. The results indicate that changing a neonate's position does not significantly alter transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension.