Musculoskeletal pain is one of the most common presenting symptoms at the pediatrician's office. Etiology ranges from benign conditions to serious ones requiring prompt attention. This article addresses entities that present as musculoskeletal pain but are not associated with arthritis. The most common nonarthritic conditions are benign limb pain of childhood (growing pains), hypermobility, overuse syndromes with or without skeletal abnormalities, malignancies, and pain amplification syndromes. The| initial decision process, diagnosis, and treatment options for each of these conditions are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.