A possible cross-talk between autophagy and apoptosis in generating an immune response in melanoma.

Academic Article

Abstract

  • Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, responsible for the majority of skin cancer related deaths. Thus, the search for natural molecules which can effectively destroy tumors while promoting immune activation is essential for designing novel therapies against metastatic melanoma. Here, we report for the first time that a natural triterpenoid, Ganoderic acid DM (GA-DM), induces an orchestrated autophagic and apoptotic cell death, as well as enhanced immunological responses via increased HLA class II presentation in melanoma cells. Annexin V staining and flow cytometry showed that GA-DM treatment induced apoptosis of melanoma cells, which was supported by a detection of increased Bax proteins, co-localization and elevation of Apaf-1 and cytochrome c, and a subsequent cleavage of caspases 9 and 3. Furthermore, GA-DM treatment initiated a possible cross-talk between autophagy and apoptosis as evidenced by increased levels of Beclin-1 and LC3 proteins, and their timely interplay with apoptotic and/or anti-apoptotic molecules in melanoma cells. Despite GA-DM's moderate cytotoxicity, viable cells expressed high levels of HLA class II proteins with improved antigen presentation and CD4+ T cell recognition. The antitumor efficacy of GA-DM was also investigated in vivo in murine B16 melanoma model, where GA-DM treatment slowed tumor formation with a significant reduction in tumor volume. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the potential of GA-DM as a natural chemo-immunotherapeutic capable of inducing a possible cross-talk between autophagy and apoptosis, as well as improved immune recognition for sustained melanoma tumor clearance.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • Apoptosis  Journal
  • Keywords

  • Animals, Antigen Presentation, Antineoplastic Agents, Apoptosis, Autophagy, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, HLA-D Antigens, Humans, Melanoma, Melanoma, Experimental, Mice, Triterpenes
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Authorlist

  • Hossain A; Radwan FFY; Doonan BP; God JM; Zhang L; Bell PD; Haque A
  • Start Page

  • 1066
  • End Page

  • 1078
  • Volume

  • 17
  • Issue

  • 10