Lung infections with Nocardia and Aspergillus spp in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) create diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The present case illustrates the difficulties in identifying these pathogens in LTRs. A high degree of clinical suspicion and aggressive early management are required to ensure good outcomes. Although prospective data on treating these conditions are scarce, the empiric use of combination broad-spectrum anti-microbials initially seems prudent. © 2010 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.