Kidney, liver, heart, pancreas, lung, and small intestine transplantations are viable therapeutic options for patients with end-stage organ failure. Ongoing advancements of surgical techniques, immunosuppressive regimens, and perioperative management have resulted in improved survival of allograft recipients. Despite these refinements, infections still contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality, limiting long-term success rates of these procedures. This article discusses the emerging bacterial, fungal, and viral respiratory infections in transplantation. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.