Poxvirus uracil DNA glycosylases are the most diverse members of the family I uracil DNA glycosylases (UNGs). The crystal structure of the uracil complex of Vaccinia virus uracil DNA glycosylase (D4) was determined at 2.03Å resolution. One uracil molecule was located in the active-site pocket in each of the 12 noncrystallographic symmetry-related D4 subunits. Although the UNGs of the poxviruses (including D4) feature significant differences in the characteristic motifs designated for uracil recognition and in the base-excision mechanism, the architecture of the active-site pocket in D4 is very similar to that in UNGs of other organisms. Overall, the interactions of the bound uracil with the active-site residues are also similar to the interactions previously observed in the structures of human and Escherichia coli UNG. © 2013 International Union of Crystallography.