Objective: To determine predictors of family caregiver life satisfaction at one and two years after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Prospective collaborative longitudinal study of 336 family members caring for individuals with TBI participating in the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) designated TBI Model Systems of Care (TBIMS). Survivors' medical and demographic information was obtained from the TBIMS database. Follow-up interviews were completed with both survivors and family caregivers at 1 year and 2 years post injury. The primary outcome variable, caregiver life satisfaction, was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Results: Repeated measures ordinal logistic regression showed that survivors' functional status at discharge, drug use, and neurobehavioral problems were significant predictors of family caregivers' life satisfaction at 1 and 2 years post injury. Conclusions: Family members of individuals with TBI often experience reduced life satisfaction in the first 2 years following their relatives' TBI. Psychiatric and neurobehavioral problems, such as drug use and depression, as well as motor dysfunction in survivors may be important contributors to decreased life satisfaction among their caregivers. © 2010 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.