© Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons There is an increased risk of acute rejection (AR) in human immunodeficiency virus–positive (HIV+) kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Induction immunosuppression is standard of care for those at high risk of AR; however, use in HIV+ patients is controversial, given fears of increased infection rates. We sought to compare clinical outcomes between HIV+ KT recipients who were treated with (i) anti–thymocyte globulin (ATG), (ii) IL-2 receptor blocker, and (iii) no induction. We studied 830 HIV+ KT recipients between 2000 and 2014, as captured in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, and compared rates of delayed graft function (DGF), AR, graft loss and death. Infections and hospitalizations were ascertained by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes in a subset of 308 patients with Medicare. Compared with no induction, neither induction agent was associated with an increased risk of infection (weighted hazard ratio [wHR] 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55–1.18). HIV+ recipients who received induction spent fewer days in the hospital (weighted relative risk [wRR] 0.70, 95% CI 0.52–0.95), had lower rates of DGF (wRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.51–0.84), less graft loss (wHR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24–0.89) and a trend toward lower mortality (wHR 0.60, 95% CI 0.24–1.28). Those who received induction with ATG had lower rates of AR (wRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.35–0.99). Induction in HIV+ KT recipients was not associated with increased infections; in fact, those receiving ATG, the most potent agent, had the lowest rates. In light of the high risk of AR in this population, induction therapy should be strongly considered.