Vasodilator stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) accounts for up to 50% of all stress MPI studies performed in the U.S. In 2008, the Food and Drug Administration approved regadenoson for stress testing in conjunction with MPI. Regadenoson, unlike adenosine, is a selective A2A agonist that is given as an intravenous bolus at a fixed dose, with less undesirable side effects including atrioventricular block and bronchospasm. Unlike adenosine, regadenoson could be used in patients with mild-to-moderate reactive airway disease. This review will summarize the pre-clinical and clinical data on regadenoson, as they specifically relate to its use as a vasodilator stress agent, currently the only approved selective A2A agonist.. © 2009 American College of Cardiology Foundation.