Variability of the muscles of the anterior thigh is minimal. After review of the extant medical literature, we believe this to be the first reported case of a femoral head of the left and right rectus femoris muscles. In addition to this anomaly, our anatomic specimen demonstrated an accessory head of the right brachialis muscle and the quadratus plantae muscles inserted into the tendons of both the flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus. In clinical practice, knowledge of the possibility of an anomalous accessory femoral head of the rectus femoris muscle in clinical practice would be useful for those who might palpate this unusual muscle or encounter it surgically. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.