The Chiari 3.5 malformation: a review of the only reported case.

Academic Article


  • INTRODUCTION: In 1894, Giuseppe Muscatello described what we believe to be the only case of an occipitocervical encephalocele with a communication to the stomach. This case and its history and context compared to the Chiari 3 malformation as described 3¬†years earlier by Hans Chiari are presented. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the uniqueness of this case, we propose the term Chiari 3.5 malformation be used to describe its anatomical derailment.
  • Authors

    Published In


  • Cervical encephalocele, Chiari 3 malformation, History, Arnold-Chiari Malformation, Female, History, 19th Century, Humans, Infant
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 15937412
  • Author List

  • Fisahn C; Shoja MM; Turgut M; Oskouian RJ; Oakes WJ; Tubbs RS
  • Start Page

  • 2317
  • End Page

  • 2319
  • Volume

  • 32
  • Issue

  • 12