THE PAST DECADE has seen considerable advances in the understanding of angiogenesis. Blood vessel development and growth inthecentral nervous system are tightly controlled processes that are regulated by angiogenic factors. Angiogenic factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of disorders, including primary and metastatic brain tumors, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and cavernous malformations. The potential clinical applications of angiogenesis research include inhibition of angiogenesis to control brain tumors and therapeutic angiogenesis to promote collateral blood vessel formation among patients at risk of ischemia. This article summarizes the processes of blood vessel formation in the brain, examines the angiogenic factors that are prominent in the central nervous system, reviews the clinical use of angiogenesis inhibitors, and identifies areas for future investigation.