Histological analysis of chronically stimulated human vagus nerves is lacking in the literature. In this study, we describe the first microscopic findings in a chronically stimulated left vagus nerve from a pediatric patient. Our results show many histological changes in and around the stimulated nerve with severe demyelination. Further long-term clinical and postmortem examinations of chronically stimulated vagus nerves in both children and adults are needed to ascertain whether prolonged exposure to electrical current can cause clinical dysfunction of this nerve. Copyright © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.