OBJECT: The proximal segment of the axillary nerve (ANp) is often difficult to identify without extensive dissection deep into the axilla. The present study was performed to find reliable surgical landmarks for this nerve. METHODS: Thirty dissections of human cadavers were performed to determine the relationships between the ANp and specific anatomical structures. The authors found that the ANp is consistently located within an anatomical triangle constructed by lines passing between the coracobrachialis and pectoralis minor muscles and the axillary artery. In addition, the ANp was routinely found 4 cm distal to the coracoid process of the scapula. CONCLUSIONS: These findings should assist the surgeon in locating the ANp during brachial plexus reconstruction.