OBJECT: There are scant data regarding the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) in the neurosurgical literature. In the current study the authors attempt to provide easily identifiable superficial osseous landmarks for the identification of the AIN. METHODS: The AIN in 20 upper extremities obtained in adult cadaveric specimens was dissected and quantified. Measurements were obtained between the nerve and surrounding superficial osseous landmarks. The AIN originated from the median nerve at mean distances of 5.4 cm distal to the medial epicondyle of the humerus and 21 cm proximal to the ulnar styloid process. The distance from the origin of the AIN to its branch leading to the flexor pollicis longus muscle and to the point it travels deep to the pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle measured a mean 4 and 14.4 cm, respectively. The mean distance from the AIN branch leading to the flexor pollicis longus muscle to the proximal PQ muscle was 12.1 cm, and the mean distance between this branch and the ulnar styloid process was 7.2 cm. The mean diameter of the AIN was 1.6 mm at the midforearm. CONCLUSIONS: Additional landmarks for identification of the AIN can aid the neurosurgeon in more precisely isolating this nerve and avoiding complications. Furthermore, after quantitation of this nerve, the AIN branches can be easily used for neurotization of the median and ulnar nerves, and with the aid of a transinterosseous membrane tunneling technique, passed to the posterior interosseous nerve.