Safety and utility of supplemental depth electrodes for localizing the ictal onset zone in pediatric neocortical epilepsy.

Academic Article

Abstract

  • OBJECT: Depth electrodes provide a better sampling of sulci and regions of cortex that lie tangential to the plane of subdural electrodes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of supplemental depth electrodes in the surgical treatment of pediatric patients with neocortical epilepsy. METHODS: Cases involving 12 consecutive pediatric patients (mean age [SD] 10.9 ± 4.4 years) were reviewed. Focal resective surgery (in 9 cases) or functional hemispherectomy (in 3 cases) was performed after intracranial monitoring. The mean total number of electrodes was 118 ± 29; the mean numbers of grid, strip, and depth electrodes were 95 ± 27, 10 ± 6, and 13 ± 5, respectively The most common pathological condition was focal cortical dysplasia. RESULTS: In 4 cases, depth electrodes demonstrated the ictal onset zone in an area not easily accessible by grids or strips (in the basal temporal region in 3 cases and the upper opercular region in 1 case). In 3 of these 4 cases, the ictal onset zone was defined exclusively by the depth electrodes. In each of these 3 cases, the surface electrodes (on grids or strips) demonstrated early propagation but not ictal onset. In 9 cases, the depth electrodes also demonstrated the early propagation zone. The information about the ictal onset zone and the early propagation zone helped to provide additional information that affected the extent (in 7 cases) or depth (in 3 cases) of the resection. The proportion of the electrodes involved in resection relative to the total number of implanted electrodes was low (mean ± SD, 0.26 ± 0.09). Nine patients (75.0%) became seizure free (Engel class IA outcome) after surgery (mean duration of follow-up 25.7 ± 4.29 months). There were no surgical complications related to intracranial electroencephalography monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients (75.0%) became seizure free after extensive monitoring and more limited resection of seizure-onset regions. Supplemental depth electrodes contribute to improved outcome by providing information about the ictal onset zone that is not accessible by grid or strip electrodes in some cases. The supplemental depth electrodes conferred an extra dimension of depth to the analysis, which allowed for successful outcome with more limited resection.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Keywords

  • Adolescent, Child, Diagnostic Imaging, Electrodes, Implanted, Electroencephalography, Encephalitis, Epilepsies, Partial, Equipment Safety, Female, Gliosis, Hemispherectomy, Humans, Male, Malformations of Cortical Development, Monitoring, Physiologic, Neocortex, Neuronavigation, Predictive Value of Tests, Retrospective Studies, Tuberous Sclerosis
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Kim H; Lee C; Knowlton R; Rozzelle C; Blount JP
  • Start Page

  • 49
  • End Page

  • 56
  • Volume

  • 8
  • Issue

  • 1