Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as gastroesophageal reflux resulting in symptoms or in injury to the esophageal epithelium. Although the medical management of GERD has improved, an increasing number of laparoscopic antireflux surgical procedures are being performed. Barium studies, endoscopy, manometry, and pH monitoring are all integral components of preoperative evaluation. Barium swallow examination must allow critical evaluation of esophageal peristalsis, the presence and extent of gastroesophageal reflux, and complications including esophagitis, stricture, and Barrett esophagus. It is crucial to identify and characterize hiatal hernia and longitudinal stricture, which can result in a shortened esophagus. In such cases, it becomes necessary for the surgeon to incorporate an esophageal lengthening procedure prior to fundoplication; otherwise, poor surgical outcome is likely. Normal postfundoplication radiographic findings as well as postoperative complications (eg, tight wrap, perforation, abscess, complete or partial dehiscence, recurrent stricture, recurrent hernia, intrathoracic migration of the wrap) must also be recognized and clearly understood by the radiologist. Given the chronic nature and prevalence of symptomatic GERD and the increasing number of patients undergoing surgical intervention, it is imperative that the radiologist understand the pre- and postsurgical evaluation of affected patients. ©RSNA, 2005.