Drug-resistant epilepsy is a chronic debilitating disorder, but many cases are potentially curable by surgery. The key to the successful epilepsy surgery with complete postoperative seizure-free status is precise localization of the epileptic zone that must be resected and the adjacent eloquent areas of gray and white matter that must be preserved to avoid neurological defects. This article reviews the current state of the art epilepsy imaging techniques facilitating successful epilepsy surgery. The overview of the imaging appearances of the most common epileptogenic etiologies that are amenable to surgical resection is also included in this review. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.