Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium-Amiodarone, Lidocaine or Placebo Study (ROC-ALPS): Rationale and methodology behind an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest antiarrhythmic drug trial.

Academic Article


  • BACKGROUND: Despite their wide use, whether antiarrhythmic drugs improve survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is not known. The ROC-ALPS is evaluating the effectiveness of these drugs for OHCA due to shock-refractory ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT). METHODS: ALPS will randomize 3,000 adults across North America with nontraumatic OHCA, persistent or recurring VF/VT after ≥1 shock, and established vascular access to receive up to 450 mg amiodarone, 180 mg lidocaine, or placebo in the field using a double-blind protocol, along with standard resuscitation measures. The designated target population is all eligible randomized recipients of any dose of ALPS drug whose initial OHCA rhythm was VF/VT. A safety analysis includes all randomized patients regardless of their eligibility, initial arrhythmia, or actual receipt of ALPS drug. The primary outcome of ALPS is survival to hospital discharge; a secondary outcome is functional survival at discharge assessed as a modified Rankin Scale score ≤3. RESULTS: The principal aim of ALPS is to determine if survival is improved by amiodarone compared with placebo; secondary aim is to determine if survival is improved by lidocaine vs placebo and/or by amiodarone vs lidocaine. Prioritizing comparisons in this manner acknowledges where differences in outcome are most expected based on existing knowledge. Each aim also represents a clinically relevant comparison between treatments that is worth investigating. CONCLUSIONS: Results from ALPS will provide important information about the choice and value of antiarrhythmic therapies for VF/VT arrest with direct implications for resuscitation guidelines and clinical practice.
  • Published In


  • Adolescent, Adult, Amiodarone, Anti-Arrhythmia Agents, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Double-Blind Method, Drug Therapy, Combination, Emergency Medical Services, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Heart Rate, Humans, Lidocaine, Male, North America, Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest, Prospective Studies, Treatment Outcome, Ventricular Fibrillation, Young Adult
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Kudenchuk PJ; Brown SP; Daya M; Morrison LJ; Grunau BE; Rea T; Aufderheide T; Powell J; Leroux B; Vaillancourt C
  • Start Page

  • 653
  • End Page

  • 9.e4
  • Volume

  • 167
  • Issue

  • 5