Kinematic constraints associated with the acquisition of overarm throwing part I: Step and trunk actions

Academic Article


  • The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine differences within specific kinematic variables and ball velocity associated with developmental component levels of step and trunk action (Roberton and Halverson, 1984), and (b) if the differences in kinematic variables were significantly associated with the differences in component levels, determine potential kinematic constraints associated with skilled throwing acquisition. Results indicated stride length (69.3%) and time from stride foot contact to ball release (39.7%) provided substantial contributions to ball velocity (p < .001). All trunk kinematic measures increased significantly with increasing component levels (p < .001). Results suggest that trunk linear and rotational velocities, degree of trunk tilt, time from stride foot contact to ball release, and ball velocity represented potential control parameters and, therefore, constraints on overarm throwing acquisition. © 2006 by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Stodden DF; Langendorfer SJ; Fleisig GS; Andrews JR
  • Start Page

  • 417
  • End Page

  • 427
  • Volume

  • 77
  • Issue

  • 4